By Thomas Dixon. Have we become too used to the idea of Lincoln as the maniacal despot? Did he have other plans in mind for the racial integrity of America? Have we undersold Lincoln’s intentions in regard to the freeing of slaves?
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By Thomas Dixon. Have we become too used to the idea of Lincoln as the maniacal despot? Did he have other plans in mind for the racial integrity of America? Have we undersold Lincoln’s intentions in regard to the freeing of slaves?
Table of Contents
I. THE BOOK OF THE STATUES
Pompeii, Troy, Mycene, Crete
I the Queen of Naples: From her Garden to Pompeii – 3
II Winckelmann: The Birth of a Scientist – 10
III Interlude: Why Search for the Past? – 16
IV Schliemann (I): A Merchant Digs for Trojan Gold – 26
V Schliemann (II): THe Mask of Agamemnon – 41
VI Schliemann (III): Conflict with the Scholars – 49
VII Schliemann (V): Mycenae, Tiryns, Crete – 57
VIII Evans: Crete and the Minotaur – 61
II. THE BOOK OF THE PYRAMIDS
The Empires of Egypt
IX Napoleon: In the Land of the Pharaohs – 75
X Champollion (I): The Mystery of the Rosetta Stone – 88
XI Champollion (II): Treason and Hieroglyphics – 99
XII Belzoni, Lepsius, and Mariette: Life in Ancient Egypt – 117
XIII Petrie: The Tomb of Amenemhet – 136
XIV Robbers in the Valley of the Kings – 152
XV Mummies – 162
XVI Carter: The Tomb of Tutankhamen – 176
XVII Carter: The Cure of the Pharaohs – 190
III THE BOOK OF THE TOWERS
The Kingdoms of Assyria, Babylonia, and Sumeria
XVIII Botta Finds Nineveh – 211
XIX Grotefend: A Schoolmaster Deciphers Cuneiform – 223
XX Rawlinson: Nebuchadnezzar’s Dictionary in Clay – 236
XXI Layard: A Dilettante Outwits a Pasha – 243
XXII George Smith: The Story of the Flood – 265
XXIII Koldewey: The Tower of Babel – 279
XXIV Wolley: The Oldest Culture in the World – 297
IV THE BOOK OF THE TEMPLES
The Empires of the Aztecs, the Mayas, and the Toltecs
XXV Cortes (I): The Treasure of Moctezuma – 323
XXVI Cortes (II): The Beheaded Culture – 335
XXVII John Lloyd Stephens Buys a Jungle City – 348
XXVIII Intermezzo – 366
XXIX The Mystery of the Abandoned Mayan Cities – 370
XXX Edward Herbert Thompson: Chichen-Itza and the Sacred Wall – 387
XXXI Aztecs, Mayas and Toltecs: Whence Did They Come? – 405
V BOOKS THAT CANNOT YET BE WRITTEN
XXXII New Searches in Old Empires – 419
Chronological Tables – 430
Bibliography – 433
Index follows page 442
“This has become the archaeologist’s grandiose task: to make dried-up wellsprings bubble forth again, to make the forgotten known again, the dead alive, and to cause to flow once more that historic stream in which we are all encompassed.”
“Archaeology, I found, comprehended all manner of excitement and achievement. Adventure is coupled with bookish toil. Romantic excursions go hand in hand with scholarly self-discipline and moderation. Explorations among the ruins of the remote past have carried curious men all over the face of the earth… Yet in truth, no science is more adventurous than archaeology, if adventure is thought of as a mixture of spirit and deed.”
C. W. Ceram (January 20, 1915 – April 12, 1972) was the pseudonym of German journalist and author Kurt Wilhelm Marek, known for his popular works about archaeology. He chose to write under a pseudonym to distance himself from his earlier work as a propagandist for the Third Reich.
Ceram was born in Berlin. During World War II, he was a member of the Propagandatruppe. His works from that period include Wir hielten Narvik, 1941, and Rote Spiegel – überall am Feind. Von den Kanonieren des Reichsmarschalls, 1943.
In 1949, Ceram wrote his most famous book, Götter, Gräber und Gelehrte — published in English as Gods, Graves and Scholars: The Story of Archaeology — an account of the historical development of archaeology. Published in 28 languages, Ceram’s book eventually received a printing of over 5 million copies, and is still in print today. His very first article in this vein was about Epigraphy entitled: On the Decipherment of an Unknown Script and was published in the Berliner Illustrierte (1935).
Other books by the author include The Secret of the Hittites (1956),March of Archaeology (1958) and The First American (1971), a book on ancient North American history. Under his actual name he wroteYestermorrow: Notes on Man’s Progress (1961); Hands on the Past: The Pioneer Archaeologists Tell Their Own Story (1966).
Kurt Marek was responsible for the publication of A Woman in Berlin, presented as the non-fiction account of a German woman raped by Red Army troops.
He died at Hamburg in 1972.
The Ceram Prize in archaeology is named after him.
Table of Contents
Note on Dating System Used
Introduction by Graham Hancock
Prologue In Quest of Angels
1 A Lifetime’s Work
2 Monumental Architecture
3 Frozen in Stone
4 Strange Glyphs and Ideograms
5 Gateway to Heaven
6 Window on Another World
7 Turned toward the Stars
8 The Path of Souls
9 Cult of the Vulture
10 Cosmic Birth Stone
11 The Hooded Ones
12 Fear of the Fox’s Tail
13 Cosmic Trickster
14 From a Fox to a Wolf
15 Twilight of the Gods
16 The Wolf Progeny
17 A Dark Day in Syria
19 The Reindeer Hunters
20 Swiderian Dawn
21 The Solutrean Connection
22 Obsidian Obsession
23 The Bingöl Masters
24 Wolf Stone Mountain
25 Saviors of the World
26 Strange-Looking People
27 In the Garden of Eden
28 The Fountain of Paradise
29 The World’s Summit
30 Rise of the Anunnaki
31 The Making of Humankind
32 The Coming of the Watchers
33 Mountain of the Watchers
34 Walking with Serpents
35 A Quiet Corner of Eden
36 The Red Church
37 The Secrets of Adam
38 As Angels Ourselves
39 The Return to Eden
40 A Trip to Paradise
41 Göbekli Tepe Revisited
42 A Loss of Innocence
Appendix Useful Dates
About the Author
Chapter 12: Fear of the Fox’s Tail
The imposing central pillars in Göbekli Tepe’s Enclosure D both sport wide belts, at the front of which, beneath a centrally placed belt buckle, fox-pelt loincloths have been carved, the animal’s hind legs and long bushy tail extending down to knee level.
That leaping foxes appear also on the central pillars in the large enclosures at Göbekli Tepe suggests that the entrant passing between their twin central pillars would have encountered this vulpine creature upon accessing the otherworldly environment reached via the enclosures’ inner recesses.
So why foxes, especially as they are usually seen in primitive religions, especially in Africa, as cosmic tricksters, evil twins of the true creator god, responsible only for chaos and disarray in the universe?
Belt Buckle Clue
Was the fox the chosen animal totem of the Hooded Ones, the faceless individuals portrayed by the T-shaped pillars? If the answer is yes, then what does it mean? The key is the strange belt buckle immediately above the fox-pelt loincloth on the enclosure’s eastern pillar (Pillar 18). A similar belt buckle is seen on the western pillar (Pillar 31), although here it is left unadorned, in the same way that the figure’s belt, in complete contrast to the one worn by its eastern counterpart, is completely devoid of any glyphs or ideograms.
Only on the eastern pillar does the belt buckle reveal something very significant indeed. It shows a glyph composed of a thick letter U that cups within its concave form a large circle from which emerge three prongs that stand upward. That this emblem is worn centrally, on a belt festooned with strange ideograms, suggests that it has a very specific function.
Having examined the belt buckle glyph at some length, it is the author’s opinion that it represents the principal components of a comet. The circle is its head or nucleus, the U-shape is the bow shock that bends around the front leading edge of the nucleus and trails away as the halo. The upright prongs denote three separate tails, with multiple tails being a common feature of comets.
That the comet’s “tails” on the belt buckle stand upward also makes sense, for these are often seen to trail into the night sky as the comet reaches perihelion. This is its final approach and orbit around the sun before reemerging on the other side in readiness for the return passage through the inner solar system. As this takes place the solar magnetic fields cause the gaseous particles of the comet to point away from the sun, and so when the comet is seen in the sky, either in the pre-dawn light or, alternatively, just after sunset, its tail or tails point upward from the horizon creating an unforgettable sight.
Mark of the Comet
Yet even assuming that the belt buckle glyph does show a comet, could this not simply be a personal device without any real meaning to the function of Göbekli Tepe? This appears unlikely, since the pillar is festooned with ideograms of a probable celestial nature. The belt’s C and H glyphs would appear to have cosmological values, as does the carved eye held within a slim crescent worn around the “neck” of the T-shaped monolith. In addition to this, it does seem as if Enclosure D’s eastern central pillar has a greater function than its western neighbor, almost as if one twin is alive, while the other functions as a ghost or echo of the other.
Regardless of these facts Pillar 18’s belt buckle is simply not enough to demonstrate that comets held some importance at Göbekli Tepe. There is, however, another tantalizing link between the symbol of the comet and Enclosure D–this being the fox-pelt loincloths seen beneath the belt buckle on both monoliths. Universally the fox, andthe fox tail in particular, has been seen as a metaphor for comets due to the hairlike appearance of their long tails. Even in British heraldry the device known as the comet or blazing star is drawn to resemble the fox’s tail. It is for this reason that comets have occasionally been personified as having clear vulpine and–as we shall see–canine (doglike) and lupine (wolflike) qualities of a dark, foreboding nature.
That the hunter-gatherers of southeast Anatolia so readily gave up their nomadic lifestyles in order to build monumental architecture in an unprecedented manner argues persuasively that this incoming, godlike company of the “Hooded Ones”–represented by the T-shaped pillars–must have had some kind of hold or influence over the people. Perhaps they claimed they had some direct connection with the supernatural creature behind the manifestation of comets.
Is it possible that the enclosures embody a belief that by synchronizing the enclosures with cosmic time cycles it would help provide the builders with enough information to control the influence of comets on a supernatural level? Was it these communities’ absolute fear and loathing of comets that motivated them to abandon their old lifestyles in order to build monumental architecture on such a grand scale?
Excerpt from Inner Traditions
Andrew Collins has been investigating the idea of an advanced civilization existing before recorded history since 1979, focusing on southeast Turkey since the early 1990s. He is the co-discoverer of a massive cave complex beneath the Giza plateau, now known as “Collins’ Caves.” The author of From the Ashes of Angels, Gods of Eden, The Cygnus Mystery, andGateway to Atlantis, he lives in Essex, England.
List of Illustrations
1 The Ugly Duckling
2 The Cipher of Roger Bacon
3 The Magus, the Scryer and the Egyptologist
4 The Cryptological Maze–Part I
5 The Cryptological Maze–Part II
6 A Garden of Unearthly Delights
7 Privileged Consciousness
8 Shams Old and New
9 Letting the Cat out of the Bag
A Garden of Unearthly Delights
Gerry Kennedy once again takes up the story of his visit to Yale.
The realisation of a fantasy is proverbially fraught; the long-sought-after has a habit of failing to live up to the dream, and, to make things worse, is subject to the fickle vagaries of a first impression. In July 2001, having travelled up from the Big Apple to Yale University to inspect the fabled Voynich manuscript, I was hoping to gain a clear and calm overview of its delights that up until then had been supplied remotely by a computer screen.
Initially, the sheer privilege of being granted an audience with the volume was excitement enough; I had never before sat reverentially in front of any book, let alone a medieval tome. But somewhere at the back of my mind I possessed images of such rarities, of exotic embellishments to first-line letters or the stylised perspectives of scenes and figures that unfolded as part of a recognisable story. Regardless of one’s acquaintance with ancient volumes, Mary D’Imperio was right to state that the Voynich manuscript stands ‘totally apart’ from other ‘remotely comparable documents’.
Each page (or folio, as I learned to term them, recto facing, verso on the other side) that librarian Ellen Cordes turned, as we progressed through the various sections, revealed fresh wonders for which I had no reference points of any kind. The collection of plants seemed gaspingly surreal, the naked nymphs, whether splashing in ponds or disported on starwheels, sensually whimsical, the medicine jars voluptuously oriental. I struggled to find something of the everyday in it, but felt, like others, that some coherent meaning would emerge if only I looked long and hard enough.
The session lasted about forty-five minutes. This inadequacy was compounded by the aloofness of my bibliographic minder. I attempted to ask a few unprobing questions about how often the volume was shown and to whom, only to be met with complete silence. The ‘look don’t touch’ treatment may have been understandable, but the ‘seen and not heard’ addendum was an unnecessary stricture, turning me from a would-be suitor into a Voynich voyeur. Not only did the book itself seem unreal but the whole context in which I viewed it. Most people, for example, on a visit to savour New York, city of gleaming skyscrapers, would be well advised to take in a bird’s-eye panorama from the top of the Empire State–rather than merely ride its cavernous avenues in a taxi. It was like sightseeing New York on a video played within the taxi.
I exited the revolving doors of the Beinecke Library, carrying a $40 unsatisfactory photocopy of the whole Voynich, feeling as dizzy as if I had spent the last three-quarters of an hour trapped in its portal’s clutches. I wasn’t sure what I had seen except for some document of star-status, clearly so rare and precious that it required the attendant services of a strict bodyguard. Fortunately I had arranged an interview that followed shortly after with another starstruck admirer, whose open enthusiasm reminded me that I was not alone in my infatuation. Phillip Marshall, a postgraduate student in biology at Yale, had seen the manuscript, and as a biologist had naturally concentrated his scientific attention on the large section devoted to plants. We discussed some of the possible identifications he had made. Outside the Beinecke glass box I found it soothing to think that it might be possible to temper a possibly irrational personal attraction with some kind of rational analysis.
Marshall has spent a good deal of time trying to make sense of the illustrations, but like others has met with scant success. If it is extraordinary that the manuscript has resisted decipherment by the most pre-eminent cryptographers of the twentieth century, it is even more so that the copious drawings have not really provided a solid basis to our understanding of it. Codes and ciphers perhaps belong to a specialist realm of study; one would expect concrete images to be more amenable to interpretation. It may turn out that the Voynich script hides a large quantity of written gibberish, but the illustrations do not seem to represent the visual equivalent of mere scrawl or doodling. The strange fact, agreed by many commentators, is that there does appear to be some overall sense of intention behind them, a tentative thematic link.
The illustrations described in chapter 1 divide fairly readily into sections, suggesting a systematic purpose rather than a random rambling. Voynich analysts differ over the precise boundaries of these sections but in general concur that these fall into the herbal, astronomical, astrological or cosmological, balneological (or bathing), and a pharmacopoeia section, including a list of ‘recipes’. We shall view the illustrations utilising these useful headings but perhaps more importantly try to put them in an overarching thematic context.
At a general level the Voynich manuscript’s illustrations evince creative and positive life-generating natural forces, whether relating to the heavens or earth. There are few antagonistic images–no blood, lightning, monsters or mythical beasts that haunted the medieval imagination. There is none of the conflict or destructive tendencies that might be generated pictorially where human interaction and social institutions are concerned. For a medieval document it is surprising that there are almost no references to organised religion or the trappings of secular power, or more mundanely to everyday objects–tools, furniture, means of transport, and so on–that might point historically to a way of life. This creates a sense of otherworldliness and timelessness enhanced by zodiacal drawings of suns, stars, moons and ‘cosmic’ phenomena. Yet this in turn is brought down to earth by the apparent purity, youth and innocence of the naked bathing women undergoing perhaps some esoteric aquatic medical treatment associated with the benefit of the many depicted plants. Are we looking perhaps at some kind of magical herbal treatise that holds contentious secrets for the eyes of only a few?
“If you think all languages have been deciphered, this manuscript offers up a challenge–and provides unique symbols leading to the possibility that it’s a lost alchemical work.”
Diane C. Donovan, California Bookwatch, Dec 2006
• Scholars struggle to decipher 15th-century manuscript.
By John Tiffany —
Do you like a good real-life mystery? If so, the story of the Voynich manuscript, documented in the book The Voynich Manuscript: The Mysterious Code That Has Defied Interpretation for Centuries, is a twisting maze.
This mysterious manuscript was discovered in 1912 by a rare book dealer named Wilfrid M. Voynich in a wooden chest at an Italian Jesuit college. To this day, no one knows who the author is, who drew the lavish illustrations or much else about it.
Ever since it was found, the Voynich manuscript has perplexed researchers and scholars. The pages, made of calfskin or vellum, have been carbon dated to the 1400s. Written in an unknown language, the heavily illustrated manuscript was worked on by top code-crackers during World War II. They failed. It’s never been deciphered. At least that is the consensus of opinion. Some Voynichologists believe they have achieved a partial decoding of the document, though.
One section of the book is devoted to botany. Botanist Dr. Arthur Tucker of Delaware State University says he has identified one of the plants as “most certainly” Ipomoea arborescens, a Mexican desert tree that is a relative of the morning glory. Tucker believes the language—Voynichese, if you will—is a form of the Aztec language Nahuatl.
However, some Voynichologists believe Tucker is barking up the wrong tree. A more popular notion is that the Voynich manuscript is connected somehow with Roger Bacon, who flourished in the 13th century, though that is hard to reconcile with the carbon dating of the vellum.
Linguists, who have studied the Voynich manuscript, have determined it is written, like English, from left to right and top to bottom, and that it appears to be a real language, not some random string of nonsense.
Say Gerry Kennedy and Rob Churchill, in their book The Voynich Manuscript: “Many researchers over the years have believed, in all good faith, that they have discovered either a decipherment of the Voynichese language or the real meaning of the strange illustrations. Many more such theories will inevitably be presented in years to come by scholars equally convinced of the correctness of their methodology and conclusions.”
John Tiffany is copy editor for AMERICAN FREE PRESS and assistant editor of THE BARNES REVIEW. He has a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Michigan and has done postgraduate studies in law, biology and computer science. He is devoted to the truth and lets the chips fall where they may.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Huey P. Long:
Just the Facts: A Biographical Sketch 13
Lots of Opinions (About Huey P. Long)
Huey’s Contemporaries Remember the Kingfish 19
“The only road to salvation . . .”
Hermann Deutsch on Huey’s campaign for Mrs. Caraway 21
“We who know him best, love him most . . .”
Gerald L. K. Smith on Huey, the public figure … 21
“He has done a vast amount of good for Louisiana . . .”
Raymond Gram Swing on Huey’s accomplishments 22
“The most colorful figure I have interviewed . . .”
Roy Wilkins recalls his interview with Huey on race relations 26
“I editorially criticized his tightening grip on our state . . .”
Long critic Hodding Carter recalls his fight with Huey 27
“He was head and shoulders stronger . . .”
James Farley on Huey’s presidential ambitions 28
Huey’s mind: “more clarity, decisiveness, and force . . .”
Raymond Moley on the brain power of Huey Long 30
“He gave the people tax exemptions . . .”
John T. Flynn on Huey Long’s populist policies 31
“He had a big strong voice . . .”
John Fournet—a witness to Long’s assassination 34
Huey’s traits: “So distinct and so full of color . . .”
The New York Times remembers Huey—grudgingly 35
“That fearless, dauntless, unmatchable champion . . .”
Populist Republican Sen. William Langer on Huey Long 37
Huey P. Long (In His Own Words)
From Huey’s Writings and Speeches 39
“Redistribute the wealth” and restore America . . .
Huey explains the problem with the American economy 41
“The organized 600 families who control the wealth . . .”
Huey champions the people over the plutocrats 42
“Rockefeller, Morgan, and their crowd stepped up . . .”
Huey says it’s time for the big money interests to share 45
“America must take one of three choices . . .”
Huey calls for the nation to face reality 46
“We propose to limit the size of all big fortunes . . .”
Huey lays out his plan to “Share the Wealth” 53
“Our plan would injure no one . . .”
Huey explains that his policies will benefit all people 65
“Too few of our people owned too much of our wealth . . .”
Huey demonstrates the source of America’s troubles 74
“Life, liberty, and happiness to all people . . .”
Huey promises the end result of his policies of reform 93
A Final Word . . .
Who Killed Huey P. Long? 99
“We are not going to have this good little America here long if we do not take to redistribute the wealth of this country . . .”
“The great and grand dream of America that all men are created free and equal, endowed with the inalienable right of life and liberty and the pursuit of happiness— this great dream of America, this great light, and this great hope—has almost gone out of sight in this day and time, and everybody knows it; and there is a mere candle flicker here and yonder to take the place of what the great dream of America was supposed to be.
The people of this country have fought and have struggled, trying, by one process and the other, to bring about the change that would save the country to the ideal and purposes of America. They are met with the Democratic Party at one time and the Republican Party at another time, and both of them at another time, and nothing can be squeezed through these party organizations that goes far enough to bring the American people to a condition where they have such a thing as a livable country. We swapped the tyrant 3,000 miles away for a handful of financial slave-owning overlords who make the tyrant of Great Britain seem mild.
Much talk is indulged in to the effect that the great fortunes of the United States are sacred, that they have been built up by honest and individual initiative, that the funds were honorably acquired by men of genius far-visioned in thought. The fact that those fortunes have been acquired and that those who have built them for the financial masters have become impoverished is a sufficient proof that they have not been regularly and honorably acquired in this country.
Even if they had been that would not alter the case. I find that the Morgan and Rockefeller groups alone held, together, 341directorships in 112 banks, railroad, insurance, and other corporations, and one of this group made an after-dinner speech in which he said that a newspaper report had asserted that 12 men in the United States controlled the business of the nation, and in the same speech to this group he said, “And I am one of the 12 and you the balance, and this statement is correct.”
They pass laws under which people may be put in jail for utterances made in war times and other times, but you cannot stifle or keep from growing, as poverty and starvation and hunger increase in this country, the spirit of the American people, if there is going to be any spirit in America at all.
Unless we provide for the redistribution of wealth in this country, the country is doomed; there is going to be no country left here very long. That may sound a little bit extravagant, but I tell you that we are not going to have this good little America here long if we do not take to redistribute the wealth of this country.”